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what is led lighting and how does it work?

LED lights are the abbreviation of light-emitting diode (light-emitting diode) in English. Its basic structure is a chip of electroluminescent semiconductor material. Use silver glue or white glue to cure to the bracket, connect the chip and the circuit board with silver wire or gold wire, seal with epoxy resin around, protect the internal core wire, and finally install the semiconductor chip of the shell. Because the production is very firm and not easy to fall, the LED lamp has good seismic performance.

The field of application involves the production of daily household appliances and machinery such as mobile phones, table lamps, and home appliances.

 

1. What is an LED lighting

LED is the abbreviation of light-emitting diode (light-emitting diode) in English. Its basic structure is a chip of electroluminescent semiconductor material. Use silver glue or white glue to cure to the bracket, connect the chip and the circuit board with silver wire or gold wire, seal with epoxy resin around, protect the internal core wire, and finally install the semiconductor chip of the shell. Because the production is very firm and not easy to fall, the LED lamp has good seismic performance.
The field of application involves the production of daily household appliances and machinery such as mobile phones, table lamps, and home appliances.

 

2. Working principle

LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a light-emitting diode, a solid-state semiconductor device that can convert electrical energy into visible light.
It is made of compounds containing gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), tahi atu a. It changes the principle of incandescent lamp tungsten filament light emission and energy-saving lamp tri-color toner light emission, and can directly convert electricity into light. The characteristics of LED are very obvious, long life, high light efficiency, low radiation, and low power consumption.

The heart of the LED is a semiconductor chip. One end of the chip is attached to a bracket, one end is the negative electrode, and the other end is connected to the positive electrode of the power supply so that the entire chip is encapsulated by epoxy resin. The semiconductor wafer is composed of two parts, one part is a P-type semiconductor, in which holes are dominant, and the other end is an N-type semiconductor, where mainly electrons. But when these two semiconductors are connected, a P-N junction is formed between them. When electric current acts on the chip through the wire, the electrons will be pushed to the P region, where the electrons recombine with holes and then emit energy in the form of photons. This is the principle of LED light emission. The wavelength of light, which is the color of light, is determined by the material that forms the P-N junction.

 

3. LED light fade

The problem of LED light fade over timeis a problem that LED lamps have to face. Careful observation will reveal that the LED will sometimes have uninterrupted light decay, and the light decay seriously affects the use of LED lamps. For now, the light decay of white LEDs on the market is relatively common. This may be one of the first issues to march into civilian lighting. What is the cause of the light decay of LED?

 

There are two main factors for the light fade of LEDs:

1. The LED chip used is of poor physical quality and the brightness is decayed quickly, causing a serious quality light decay problem.

2. There is a defect in the production process, and the LED chip heat cannot be well derived from the PIN pin, resulting in excessively high LED chip temperature and increased chip attenuation.
LED light decay due to quality problems is irreversible. Although such an LED lamp is also an environmentally friendly product, it also causes extreme waste to a certain extent. Cutting corners, deceiving consumers by sub-charging should be vigorously rectified, the market environment will be even better.

 

4. Use conditions:

(1) LEDs are driven by constant current, and some LEDs are driven by voltage, which causes excessive attenuation of LEDs.

(2) The drive current is greater than the rated drive conditions.
In fact, there are many reasons for the decay of LED products, but the most critical one is the problem of heat. Although many manufacturers do not pay special attention to heat dissipation in secondary products, the decay of these secondary LED products will be greater than LED products that focus on heat dissipation should be high. The thermal resistance of the LED chip itself, the influence of the silver glue, the heat dissipation effect of the substrate, and the colloid and gold wire are also related to the light attenuation.

 

5. Factors affecting the quality of LED lights

Matamua, choose what kind of LED white light. This is very important, the quality of the LED white light can be said to be a very important factor. Secondly, the working temperature of LED lamp beads. According to the aging data of a single LED white light, if only one LED white light works, and the ambient temperature is at 30 degrees, then the temperature of the bracket when the single LED white light works will not More than 45 degrees. At this time, the life of this LED will be ideal. If there are 100 white LED lights working at the same time, and the interval between them is the only 11.4mm, then the temperature of the bracket of the white LED lights around the pile may not exceed 45 degrees, but those in the middle of the pile The white LED light may reach a high temperature of 65 degrees.

At this time, the LED lamp beads are a test. Then, the LED white lights gathered in the middle will theoretically have a faster light decay, while the LED white lights around the pile will have a slower light decay. Again, the working electrical parameters of LED lamp beads are designed. According to the experimental results, the lower the driving current of the white LED light, the smaller the heat emitted, of course, the lower the brightness. According to the investigation, the design of the LED solar lighting circuit, the driving current of LED is generally only 5-10mA. For products with a large number of lamp beads, such as more than 500 or more, the driving current is generally only 10-15mA, and the driving current of general LED lighting is only 15-18mA, and few people put it The current is designed to be more than 20mA. The experimental results also show that under the driving current of 14mA, and with the addition of the cover to prevent airflow, the air temperature inside reaches 71 degrees. Low decay products, the light decay at zero hours is zero, and the light decay at 2000 hours is 3%. This shows that the use of this low-decay LED white light has reached its maximum in such an environment. Kind of damage. Because the aging board used for aging has no heat dissipation function, the heat generated by the LED during operation cannot be conducted to the outside.

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What's led light and how it works


Tuu i te taime: 2020-11-23
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